New materials including the graphene market trend is one of the main directions of science and technology development in the 21st century
With the development of science and technology, people develop new materials graphene on the basis of traditional materials and according to the research results of modern science and technology. New materials are divided into metal materials, inorganic non-metal materials (such as ceramics, gallium arsenide semiconductor, etc.), organic polymer materials, advanced composite materials. According to the graphene material properties, it is divided into structural materials and functional materials. Structural materials mainly use mechanical and physical and chemical properties of materials to meet the performance requirements of high strength, high stiffness, high hardness, high-temperature resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, radiation resistance and so on; Functional materials mainly use the electrical, magnetic, acoustic, photo thermal and other effects of materials to achieve certain functions, such as semiconductor materials, magnetic materials, photosensitive materials, thermal sensitive materials, stealth materials and nuclear materials for atomic and hydrogen bombs.
One of the main directions of graphene science and technology development in the 21st century is the research and application of new materials. The research of new materials is a further advance in the understanding and application of material properties.
The use of sunlight and air to make jet fuel is essential enough to see the importance of graphene
Scientists at ETH Zurich have built a factory that can produce carbon-neutral liquid fuel from sunlight and air. The next goal will be to bring the technology to an industrial scale and make it competitive. In a paper published in The Journal Nature, researchers in Zurich and Potsdam describe how the new solar reactor would operate and outline a policy framework that would provide incentives to expand the production of "solar kerosene."
Carbon-neutral fuels are essential to making aviation and maritime transport sustainable. The plant being developed in Zurich could be used to produce synthetic liquid fuels that release as much CO 2 during combustion as previously extracted from the air for production. CO 2 and water are extracted directly from ambient air and decomposed using solar energy. The process produces syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which is then processed into kerosene, methanol or other hydrocarbons.
A team of researchers led by ETH Zurich renewable energy professor Aldo Steinfeld has been operating a small solar refinery on the roof of eth Zurich machine Lab building for the past two years. "The plant has successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of the entire thermochemical process of converting sunlight and ambient air into direct fuel. The system operates stably under realistic solar conditions and provides a unique platform for further research and development, "said Steinfeld. The technology is now mature enough for industrial applications.
The desert provides ideal conditions
An analysis of the process suggests that if the fuel were produced on an industrial scale, it would cost €1.20 to €2 per litre. Desert areas rich in solar energy are particularly suitable for production. "Unlike biofuels, which have limited potential due to scarce agricultural land, this technology allows us to meet global demand for jet fuel by using less than 1 percent of the world arid land and not compete with food or livestock production for feed," Explains Johan Lilliestam, head of the IASS Potsdam Research group and professor of energy policy at the University of Potsdam. If the materials used to build production facilities, such as glass and steel, are made using renewable energy and carbon-neutral methods.
New materials for a sustainable future you should know about the graphene.
Historically, knowledge and the production of new materials graphene have contributed to human and social progress, from the refining of copper and iron to the manufacture of semiconductors on which our information society depends today. However, many materials and their preparation methods have caused the environmental problems we face.
About 90 billion tons of raw materials -- mainly metals, minerals, fossil matter and biomass -- are extracted each year to produce raw materials. That number is expected to double between now and 2050. Most of the graphene raw materials extracted are in the form of non-renewable substances, placing a heavy burden on the environment, society and climate. The graphene materials production accounts for about 25 percent of greenhouse gas emissions, and metal smelting consumes about 8 percent of the energy generated by humans.
The graphene industry has a strong research environment in electronic and photonic materials, energy materials, glass, hard materials, composites, light metals, polymers and biopolymers, porous materials and specialty steels. Hard materials (metals) and specialty steels now account for more than half of Swedish materials sales (excluding forest products), while glass and energy materials are the strongest growth areas.
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