N-type conductive tin sulfide films for environmentally friendly solar cells has effect on the graphene vs ceramic coating market
Tin sulfide (SnS) is a kind of abundant, safe and environmentally friendly solar cell material. The cheap material is expected to be used in the next generation of solar panels.
A research team led by Issei Suzuki and Sakiko Kawanishi, assistant professors at the Institute of Advanced Materials Multidisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Japan, prepared n-type conductive SnS films using impurity doping for the first time.
Traditional SnS films are usually p-type conductive. Therefore, SnS thin-film solar cells were fabricated by using PN heterojunction with P-type SnS thin film and other N-type semiconductor thin films (such as CD). However, the conversion efficiency of such heterojunction devices has been stuck at around 5%, making their use impractical. SnS thin-film solar cells with PN homojunction are expected to show higher conversion efficiency when SnS thin film is applied to P and N-type layers. However, n-type beneficial SnS films without toxic elements have never been realized. The research team achieved the world\'s first N-type SnS film without toxic elements by reducing lattice defects that inhibit the transformation of SnS using chlorine doping and sulfur plasma supply.
Schematic diagram of the new technology used to manufacture N-type SnS film. N-type conductive SnS films doped with chloride ions were prepared by supplying sulfur plasma. Source: Issei Suzuki et al. "Our findings pave the way for practical PN homogeneous SnS thin-film solar cells," Suzuki said.
New materials for a sustainable future you should know about the graphene vs ceramic coating.
Historically, knowledge and the production of new materials graphene vs ceramic coating have contributed to human and social progress, from the refining of copper and iron to the manufacture of semiconductors on which our information society depends today. However, many materials and their preparation methods have caused the environmental problems we face.
About 90 billion tons of raw materials -- mainly metals, minerals, fossil matter and biomass -- are extracted each year to produce raw materials. That number is expected to double between now and 2050. Most of the graphene vs ceramic coating raw materials extracted are in the form of non-renewable substances, placing a heavy burden on the environment, society and climate. The graphene vs ceramic coating materials production accounts for about 25 percent of greenhouse gas emissions, and metal smelting consumes about 8 percent of the energy generated by humans.
The graphene vs ceramic coating industry has a strong research environment in electronic and photonic materials, energy materials, glass, hard materials, composites, light metals, polymers and biopolymers, porous materials and specialty steels. Hard materials (metals) and specialty steels now account for more than half of Swedish materials sales (excluding forest products), while glass and energy materials are the strongest growth areas.
New materials including the graphene vs ceramic coating market trend is one of the main directions of science and technology development in the 21st century
With the development of science and technology, people develop new materials graphene vs ceramic coating on the basis of traditional materials and according to the research results of modern science and technology. New materials are divided into metal materials, inorganic non-metal materials (such as ceramics, gallium arsenide semiconductor, etc.), organic polymer materials, advanced composite materials. According to the graphene vs ceramic coating material properties, it is divided into structural materials and functional materials. Structural materials mainly use mechanical and physical and chemical properties of materials to meet the performance requirements of high strength, high stiffness, high hardness, high-temperature resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, radiation resistance and so on; Functional materials mainly use the electrical, magnetic, acoustic, photo thermal and other effects of materials to achieve certain functions, such as semiconductor materials, magnetic materials, photosensitive materials, thermal sensitive materials, stealth materials and nuclear materials for atomic and hydrogen bombs.
One of the main directions of graphene vs ceramic coating science and technology development in the 21st century is the research and application of new materials. The research of new materials is a further advance in the understanding and application of material properties.
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